The UN says violence suffered by civilians in Iraq “remains staggering”, with at least 18,800 killed between 1 January 2014 and 31 October 2015.
Some 3.2 million people have also been displaced internally over the same period, according to a new report.
The UN accuses so-called Islamic State of systematic and widespread violence, including holding some 3,500 mainly women and children as slaves.
Alleged abuses by troops, militiamen and Kurdish forces were also recorded.
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Raad Al Hussein said the report “starkly illustrates what Iraqi refugees are attempting to escape when they flee to Europe and other regions. This is the horror they face in their homelands”.
The report, by the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, is based on interviews with the displaced and direct testimony from victims, survivors or witnesses of rights abuses.
It says the figures of 18,802 civilians killed and 36,245 wounded between 1 January 2014 and 31 October 2015 could be much higher.
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